Zoonotic Spillover in Stochastic Epidemic Models with Demographic and Seasonal Variability

Join Zoom Meeting
Meeting ID: 926 5556 3550
Passcode: 851365
One tap mobile
+12678310333,,92655563550# US (Philadelphia)
8778535247,,92655563550# US Toll-free
Dial by your location
        +1 267 831 0333 US (Philadelphia)
        877 853 5247 US Toll-free
Meeting ID: 926 5556 3550
Find your local number: https://pitt.zoom.us/u/aez5vxZLpq

Friday, April 2, 2021 - 15:30


Speaker Information
Linda Allen
Texas Tech University

Abstract or Additional Information

Zoonotic infectious diseases are spread from animals to humans. It is estimated that over 60% of human infectious diseases are zoonotic and 75\% of them are emerging zoonoses. The majority of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases are caused by viruses including avian influenza, rabies, Ebola, coronaviruses and hantaviruses. Spillover of infectionfrom animals to humans depends on a complex transmission pathway, which is influenced by epidemiological and environmental processes. In this investigation, the focus is on direct transmission between animals and humans and the   effects of seasonal variations  on the transmission and   recovery rates.  Fluctuations in transmission and recovery, besides being influenced by physiological processes and behaviors of pathogen and host, are driven by seasonal variations in temperature, humidity or rainfall. A new time-nonhomogeneous stochastic process is formulated for infectious disease spread from animals to humans when transmission and recovery rates are time-periodic. A branching process approximation is applied near the disease-free state to predict the probability of the first spillover event from animals to humans. This probability is a periodic function of the time when infection is introduced into the animal population. It is shown that the highest risk of a spillover depends on a combination of animal to human transmission, animal to animal transmission and animal recovery. The results are applied to a stochastic model for avian influenza with spillover from domestic poultry to humans. This is joint work with Aadrita Nandi.